One of the two staple grain crops in the biblical period (wheat was the other). Bread made of barley was the food of lower-income people (Ezek 4:12; John 6:9).

Ezek 4:12

12You shall eat it as a barley-cake, baking it in their sight on human dung.

John 6:9

9“There is a boy here who has five barley loaves and two fish. But what are they among so many people?”

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