1The Lord said to Moses, “See, I have made you like God to Pharaoh, and your brother Aaron shall be your prophet.2You shall speak all that I command you, and your brother Aaron shall tell Pharaoh to let the Israelites go out of his land.3But I will harden Pharaoh's heart, and I will multiply my signs and wonders in the land of Egypt.4When Pharaoh does not listen to you, I will lay my hand upon Egypt and bring my people the Israelites, company by company, out of the land of Egypt by great acts of judgment.5The Egyptians shall know that I am the Lord, when I stretch out my hand against Egypt and bring the Israelites out from among them.”6Moses and Aaron did so; they did just as the Lord commanded them.7Moses was eighty years old and Aaron eighty-three when they spoke to Pharaoh.Aaron's Miraculous Rod
8The Lord said to Moses and Aaron,9“When Pharaoh says to you, ‘Perform a wonder,’ then you shall say to Aaron, ‘Take your staff and throw it down before Pharaoh, and it will become a snake.’ ”10So Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh and did as the Lord had commanded; Aaron threw down his staff before Pharaoh and his officials, and it became a snake.11Then Pharaoh summoned the wise men and the sorcerers; and they also, the magicians of Egypt, did the same by their secret arts.12Each one threw down his staff, and they became snakes; but Aaron's staff swallowed up theirs.13Still Pharaoh's heart was hardened, and he would not listen to them, as the Lord had said.The First Plague: Water Turned to Blood
14Then the Lord said to Moses, “Pharaoh's heart is hardened; he refuses to let the people go.15Go to Pharaoh in the morning, as he is going out to the water; stand by at the river bank to meet him, and take in your hand the staff that was turned into a snake.16Say to him, ‘The Lord, the God of the Hebrews, sent me to you to say, “Let my people go, so that they may worship me in the wilderness.” But until now you have not listened.17Thus says the Lord, “By this you shall know that I am the Lord.” See, with the staff that is in my hand I will strike the water that is in the Nile, and it shall be turned to blood.18The fish in the river shall die, the river itself shall stink, and the Egyptians shall be unable to drink water from the Nile.’ ”19The Lord said to Moses, “Say to Aaron, ‘Take your staff and stretch out your hand over the waters of Egypt—over its rivers, its canals, and its ponds, and all its pools of water—so that they may become blood; and there shall be blood throughout the whole land of Egypt, even in vessels of wood and in vessels of stone.’ ”20Moses and Aaron did just as the Lord commanded. In the sight of Pharaoh and of his officials he lifted up the staff and struck the water in the river, and all the water in the river was turned into blood,21and the fish in the river died. The river stank so that the Egyptians could not drink its water, and there was blood throughout the whole land of Egypt.22But the magicians of Egypt did the same by their secret arts; so Pharaoh's heart remained hardened, and he would not listen to them; as the Lord had said.23Pharaoh turned and went into his house, and he did not take even this to heart.24And all the Egyptians had to dig along the Nile for water to drink, for they could not drink the water of the river.25Seven days passed after the Lord had struck the Nile.Chapter 8The Second Plague: Frogs
1 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Go to Pharaoh and say to him, ‘Thus says the Lord: Let my people go, so that they may worship me.2If you refuse to let them go, I will plague your whole country with frogs.3The river shall swarm with frogs; they shall come up into your palace, into your bedchamber and your bed, and into the houses of your officials and of your people, and into your ovens and your kneading bowls.4The frogs shall come up on you and on your people and on all your officials.’ ”5 And the Lord said to Moses, “Say to Aaron, ‘Stretch out your hand with your staff over the rivers, the canals, and the pools, and make frogs come up on the land of Egypt.’ ”6So Aaron stretched out his hand over the waters of Egypt; and the frogs came up and covered the land of Egypt.7But the magicians did the same by their secret arts, and brought frogs up on the land of Egypt.8Then Pharaoh called Moses and Aaron, and said, “Pray to the Lord to take away the frogs from me and my people, and I will let the people go to sacrifice to the Lord.”9Moses said to Pharaoh, “Kindly tell me when I am to pray for you and for your officials and for your people, that the frogs may be removed from you and your houses and be left only in the Nile.”10And he said, “Tomorrow.” Moses said, “As you say! So that you may know that there is no one like the Lord our God,11the frogs shall leave you and your houses and your officials and your people; they shall be left only in the Nile.”12Then Moses and Aaron went out from Pharaoh; and Moses cried out to the Lord concerning the frogs that he had brought upon Pharaoh.13And the Lord did as Moses requested: the frogs died in the houses, the courtyards, and the fields.14And they gathered them together in heaps, and the land stank.15But when Pharaoh saw that there was a respite, he hardened his heart, and would not listen to them, just as the Lord had said.The Third Plague: Gnats
16Then the Lord said to Moses, “Say to Aaron, ‘Stretch out your staff and strike the dust of the earth, so that it may become gnats throughout the whole land of Egypt.’ ”17And they did so; Aaron stretched out his hand with his staff and struck the dust of the earth, and gnats came on humans and animals alike; all the dust of the earth turned into gnats throughout the whole land of Egypt.18The magicians tried to produce gnats by their secret arts, but they could not. There were gnats on both humans and animals.19And the magicians said to Pharaoh, “This is the finger of God!” But Pharaoh's heart was hardened, and he would not listen to them, just as the Lord had said.The Fourth Plague: Flies
20Then the Lord said to Moses, “Rise early in the morning and present yourself before Pharaoh, as he goes out to the water, and say to him, ‘Thus says the Lord: Let my people go, so that they may worship me.21For if you will not let my people go, I will send swarms of flies on you, your officials, and your people, and into your houses; and the houses of the Egyptians shall be filled with swarms of flies; so also the land where they live.22But on that day I will set apart the land of Goshen, where my people live, so that no swarms of flies shall be there, that you may know that I the Lord am in this land.23Thus I will make a distinction between my people and your people. This sign shall appear tomorrow.’ ”24The Lord did so, and great swarms of flies came into the house of Pharaoh and into his officials' houses; in all of Egypt the land was ruined because of the flies.25Then Pharaoh summoned Moses and Aaron, and said, “Go, sacrifice to your God within the land.”26But Moses said, “It would not be right to do so; for the sacrifices that we offer to the Lord our God are offensive to the Egyptians. If we offer in the sight of the Egyptians sacrifices that are offensive to them, will they not stone us?27We must go a three days' journey into the wilderness and sacrifice to the Lord our God as he commands us.”28So Pharaoh said, “I will let you go to sacrifice to the Lord your God in the wilderness, provided you do not go very far away. Pray for me.”29Then Moses said, “As soon as I leave you, I will pray to the Lord that the swarms of flies may depart tomorrow from Pharaoh, from his officials, and from his people; only do not let Pharaoh again deal falsely by not letting the people go to sacrifice to the Lord.”30So Moses went out from Pharaoh and prayed to the Lord.31And the Lord did as Moses asked: he removed the swarms of flies from Pharaoh, from his officials, and from his people; not one remained.32But Pharaoh hardened his heart this time also, and would not let the people go.Chapter 9The Fifth Plague: Livestock Diseased
1Then the Lord said to Moses, “Go to Pharaoh, and say to him, ‘Thus says the Lord, the God of the Hebrews: Let my people go, so that they may worship me.2For if you refuse to let them go and still hold them,3the hand of the Lord will strike with a deadly pestilence your livestock in the field: the horses, the donkeys, the camels, the herds, and the flocks.4But the Lord will make a distinction between the livestock of Israel and the livestock of Egypt, so that nothing shall die of all that belongs to the Israelites.’ ”5The Lord set a time, saying, “Tomorrow the Lord will do this thing in the land.”6And on the next day the Lord did so; all the livestock of the Egyptians died, but of the livestock of the Israelites not one died.7Pharaoh inquired and found that not one of the livestock of the Israelites was dead. But the heart of Pharaoh was hardened, and he would not let the people go.The Sixth Plague: Boils
8Then the Lord said to Moses and Aaron, “Take handfuls of soot from the kiln, and let Moses throw it in the air in the sight of Pharaoh.9It shall become fine dust all over the land of Egypt, and shall cause festering boils on humans and animals throughout the whole land of Egypt.”10So they took soot from the kiln, and stood before Pharaoh, and Moses threw it in the air, and it caused festering boils on humans and animals.11The magicians could not stand before Moses because of the boils, for the boils afflicted the magicians as well as all the Egyptians.12But the Lord hardened the heart of Pharaoh, and he would not listen to them, just as the Lord had spoken to Moses.The Seventh Plague: Thunder and Hail
13Then the Lord said to Moses, “Rise up early in the morning and present yourself before Pharaoh, and say to him, ‘Thus says the Lord, the God of the Hebrews: Let my people go, so that they may worship me.14For this time I will send all my plagues upon you yourself, and upon your officials, and upon your people, so that you may know that there is no one like me in all the earth.15For by now I could have stretched out my hand and struck you and your people with pestilence, and you would have been cut off from the earth.16But this is why I have let you live: to show you my power, and to make my name resound through all the earth.17You are still exalting yourself against my people, and will not let them go.18Tomorrow at this time I will cause the heaviest hail to fall that has ever fallen in Egypt from the day it was founded until now.19Send, therefore, and have your livestock and everything that you have in the open field brought to a secure place; every human or animal that is in the open field and is not brought under shelter will die when the hail comes down upon them.’ ”20Those officials of Pharaoh who feared the word of the Lord hurried their slaves and livestock off to a secure place.21Those who did not regard the word of the Lord left their slaves and livestock in the open field.22The Lord said to Moses, “Stretch out your hand toward heaven so that hail may fall on the whole land of Egypt, on humans and animals and all the plants of the field in the land of Egypt.”23Then Moses stretched out his staff toward heaven, and the Lord sent thunder and hail, and fire came down on the earth. And the Lord rained hail on the land of Egypt;24there was hail with fire flashing continually in the midst of it, such heavy hail as had never fallen in all the land of Egypt since it became a nation.25The hail struck down everything that was in the open field throughout all the land of Egypt, both human and animal; the hail also struck down all the plants of the field, and shattered every tree in the field.26Only in the land of Goshen, where the Israelites were, there was no hail.27Then Pharaoh summoned Moses and Aaron, and said to them, “This time I have sinned; the Lord is in the right, and I and my people are in the wrong.28Pray to the Lord! Enough of God's thunder and hail! I will let you go; you need stay no longer.”29Moses said to him, “As soon as I have gone out of the city, I will stretch out my hands to the Lord; the thunder will cease, and there will be no more hail, so that you may know that the earth is the Lord's.30But as for you and your officials, I know that you do not yet fear the Lord God.”31(Now the flax and the barley were ruined, for the barley was in the ear and the flax was in bud.32But the wheat and the spelt were not ruined, for they are late in coming up.)33So Moses left Pharaoh, went out of the city, and stretched out his hands to the Lord; then the thunder and the hail ceased, and the rain no longer poured down on the earth.34But when Pharaoh saw that the rain and the hail and the thunder had ceased, he sinned once more and hardened his heart, he and his officials.35So the heart of Pharaoh was hardened, and he would not let the Israelites go, just as the Lord had spoken through Moses.Chapter 10The Eighth Plague: Locusts
1Then the Lord said to Moses, “Go to Pharaoh; for I have hardened his heart and the heart of his officials, in order that I may show these signs of mine among them,2and that you may tell your children and grandchildren how I have made fools of the Egyptians and what signs I have done among them—so that you may know that I am the Lord.”3So Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh, and said to him, “Thus says the Lord, the God of the Hebrews, ‘How long will you refuse to humble yourself before me? Let my people go, so that they may worship me.4For if you refuse to let my people go, tomorrow I will bring locusts into your country.5They shall cover the surface of the land, so that no one will be able to see the land. They shall devour the last remnant left you after the hail, and they shall devour every tree of yours that grows in the field.6They shall fill your houses, and the houses of all your officials and of all the Egyptians—something that neither your parents nor your grandparents have seen, from the day they came on earth to this day.’ ” Then he turned and went out from Pharaoh.7Pharaoh's officials said to him, “How long shall this fellow be a snare to us? Let the people go, so that they may worship the Lord their God; do you not yet understand that Egypt is ruined?”8So Moses and Aaron were brought back to Pharaoh, and he said to them, “Go, worship the Lord your God! But which ones are to go?”9Moses said, “We will go with our young and our old; we will go with our sons and daughters and with our flocks and herds, because we have the Lord's festival to celebrate.”10He said to them, “The Lord indeed will be with you, if ever I let your little ones go with you! Plainly, you have some evil purpose in mind.11No, never! Your men may go and worship the Lord, for that is what you are asking.” And they were driven out from Pharaoh's presence.12Then the Lord said to Moses, “Stretch out your hand over the land of Egypt, so that the locusts may come upon it and eat every plant in the land, all that the hail has left.”13So Moses stretched out his staff over the land of Egypt, and the Lord brought an east wind upon the land all that day and all that night; when morning came, the east wind had brought the locusts.14The locusts came upon all the land of Egypt and settled on the whole country of Egypt, such a dense swarm of locusts as had never been before, nor ever shall be again.15They covered the surface of the whole land, so that the land was black; and they ate all the plants in the land and all the fruit of the trees that the hail had left; nothing green was left, no tree, no plant in the field, in all the land of Egypt.16Pharaoh hurriedly summoned Moses and Aaron and said, “I have sinned against the Lord your God, and against you.17Do forgive my sin just this once, and pray to the Lord your God that at the least he remove this deadly thing from me.”18So he went out from Pharaoh and prayed to the Lord.19The Lord changed the wind into a very strong west wind, which lifted the locusts and drove them into the Red Sea; not a single locust was left in all the country of Egypt.20But the Lord hardened Pharaoh's heart, and he would not let the Israelites go.The Ninth Plague: Darkness
21Then the Lord said to Moses, “Stretch out your hand toward heaven so that there may be darkness over the land of Egypt, a darkness that can be felt.”22So Moses stretched out his hand toward heaven, and there was dense darkness in all the land of Egypt for three days.23People could not see one another, and for three days they could not move from where they were; but all the Israelites had light where they lived.24Then Pharaoh summoned Moses, and said, “Go, worship the Lord. Only your flocks and your herds shall remain behind. Even your children may go with you.”25But Moses said, “You must also let us have sacrifices and burnt offerings to sacrifice to the Lord our God.26Our livestock also must go with us; not a hoof shall be left behind, for we must choose some of them for the worship of the Lord our God, and we will not know what to use to worship the Lord until we arrive there.”27But the Lord hardened Pharaoh's heart, and he was unwilling to let them go.28Then Pharaoh said to him, “Get away from me! Take care that you do not see my face again, for on the day you see my face you shall die.”29Moses said, “Just as you say! I will never see your face again.”Chapter 11Warning of the Final Plague
1The Lord said to Moses, “I will bring one more plague upon Pharaoh and upon Egypt; afterwards he will let you go from here; indeed, when he lets you go, he will drive you away.2Tell the people that every man is to ask his neighbor and every woman is to ask her neighbor for objects of silver and gold.”3The Lord gave the people favor in the sight of the Egyptians. Moreover, Moses himself was a man of great importance in the land of Egypt, in the sight of Pharaoh's officials and in the sight of the people.4Moses said, “Thus says the Lord: About midnight I will go out through Egypt.5Every firstborn in the land of Egypt shall die, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sits on his throne to the firstborn of the female slave who is behind the handmill, and all the firstborn of the livestock.6Then there will be a loud cry throughout the whole land of Egypt, such as has never been or will ever be again.7But not a dog shall growl at any of the Israelites—not at people, not at animals—so that you may know that the Lord makes a distinction between Egypt and Israel.8Then all these officials of yours shall come down to me, and bow low to me, saying, ‘Leave us, you and all the people who follow you.’ After that I will leave.” And in hot anger he left Pharaoh.9The Lord said to Moses, “Pharaoh will not listen to you, in order that my wonders may be multiplied in the land of Egypt.”10Moses and Aaron performed all these wonders before Pharaoh; but the Lord hardened Pharaoh's heart, and he did not let the people of Israel go out of his land.Chapter 12The First Passover Instituted
1The Lord said to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt:2This month shall mark for you the beginning of months; it shall be the first month of the year for you.3Tell the whole congregation of Israel that on the tenth of this month they are to take a lamb for each family, a lamb for each household.4If a household is too small for a whole lamb, it shall join its closest neighbor in obtaining one; the lamb shall be divided in proportion to the number of people who eat of it.5Your lamb shall be without blemish, a year-old male; you may take it from the sheep or from the goats.6You shall keep it until the fourteenth day of this month; then the whole assembled congregation of Israel shall slaughter it at twilight.7They shall take some of the blood and put it on the two doorposts and the lintel of the houses in which they eat it.8They shall eat the lamb that same night; they shall eat it roasted over the fire with unleavened bread and bitter herbs.9Do not eat any of it raw or boiled in water, but roasted over the fire, with its head, legs, and inner organs.10You shall let none of it remain until the morning; anything that remains until the morning you shall burn.11This is how you shall eat it: your loins girded, your sandals on your feet, and your staff in your hand; and you shall eat it hurriedly. It is the passover of the Lord.12For I will pass through the land of Egypt that night, and I will strike down every firstborn in the land of Egypt, both human beings and animals; on all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgments: I am the Lord.13The blood shall be a sign for you on the houses where you live: when I see the blood, I will pass over you, and no plague shall destroy you when I strike the land of Egypt.14This day shall be a day of remembrance for you. You shall celebrate it as a festival to the Lord; throughout your generations you shall observe it as a perpetual ordinance.15Seven days you shall eat unleavened bread; on the first day you shall remove leaven from your houses, for whoever eats leavened bread from the first day until the seventh day shall be cut off from Israel.16On the first day you shall hold a solemn assembly, and on the seventh day a solemn assembly; no work shall be done on those days; only what everyone must eat, that alone may be prepared by you.17You shall observe the festival of unleavened bread, for on this very day I brought your companies out of the land of Egypt: you shall observe this day throughout your generations as a perpetual ordinance.18In the first month, from the evening of the fourteenth day until the evening of the twenty-first day, you shall eat unleavened bread.19For seven days no leaven shall be found in your houses; for whoever eats what is leavened shall be cut off from the congregation of Israel, whether an alien or a native of the land.20You shall eat nothing leavened; in all your settlements you shall eat unleavened bread.21Then Moses called all the elders of Israel and said to them, “Go, select lambs for your families, and slaughter the passover lamb.22Take a bunch of hyssop, dip it in the blood that is in the basin, and touch the lintel and the two doorposts with the blood in the basin. None of you shall go outside the door of your house until morning.23For the Lord will pass through to strike down the Egyptians; when he sees the blood on the lintel and on the two doorposts, the Lord will pass over that door and will not allow the destroyer to enter your houses to strike you down.24You shall observe this rite as a perpetual ordinance for you and your children.25When you come to the land that the Lord will give you, as he has promised, you shall keep this observance.26And when your children ask you, ‘What do you mean by this observance?’27you shall say, ‘It is the passover sacrifice to the Lord, for he passed over the houses of the Israelites in Egypt, when he struck down the Egyptians but spared our houses.’ ” And the people bowed down and worshiped.28The Israelites went and did just as the Lord had commanded Moses and Aaron.The Tenth Plague: Death of the Firstborn
29At midnight the Lord struck down all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sat on his throne to the firstborn of the prisoner who was in the dungeon, and all the firstborn of the livestock.30Pharaoh arose in the night, he and all his officials and all the Egyptians; and there was a loud cry in Egypt, for there was not a house without someone dead.31Then he summoned Moses and Aaron in the night, and said, “Rise up, go away from my people, both you and the Israelites! Go, worship the Lord, as you said.32Take your flocks and your herds, as you said, and be gone. And bring a blessing on me too!”The Exodus: From Rameses to Succoth
33The Egyptians urged the people to hasten their departure from the land, for they said, “We shall all be dead.”34So the people took their dough before it was leavened, with their kneading bowls wrapped up in their cloaks on their shoulders.35The Israelites had done as Moses told them; they had asked the Egyptians for jewelry of silver and gold, and for clothing,36and the Lord had given the people favor in the sight of the Egyptians, so that they let them have what they asked. And so they plundered the Egyptians.37The Israelites journeyed from Rameses to Succoth, about six hundred thousand men on foot, besides children.38A mixed crowd also went up with them, and livestock in great numbers, both flocks and herds.39They baked unleavened cakes of the dough that they had brought out of Egypt; it was not leavened, because they were driven out of Egypt and could not wait, nor had they prepared any provisions for themselves.40The time that the Israelites had lived in Egypt was four hundred thirty years.41At the end of four hundred thirty years, on that very day, all the companies of the Lord went out from the land of Egypt.42That was for the Lord a night of vigil, to bring them out of the land of Egypt. That same night is a vigil to be kept for the Lord by all the Israelites throughout their generations.Directions for the Passover
43The Lord said to Moses and Aaron: This is the ordinance for the passover: no foreigner shall eat of it,44but any slave who has been purchased may eat of it after he has been circumcised;45no bound or hired servant may eat of it.46It shall be eaten in one house; you shall not take any of the animal outside the house, and you shall not break any of its bones.47The whole congregation of Israel shall celebrate it.48If an alien who resides with you wants to celebrate the passover to the Lord, all his males shall be circumcised; then he may draw near to celebrate it; he shall be regarded as a native of the land. But no uncircumcised person shall eat of it;49there shall be one law for the native and for the alien who resides among you.50All the Israelites did just as the Lord had commanded Moses and Aaron.51That very day the Lord brought the Israelites out of the land of Egypt, company by company.Chapter 131The Lord said to Moses:2Consecrate to me all the firstborn; whatever is the first to open the womb among the Israelites, of human beings and animals, is mine.The Festival of Unleavened Bread
3Moses said to the people, “Remember this day on which you came out of Egypt, out of the house of slavery, because the Lord brought you out from there by strength of hand; no leavened bread shall be eaten.4Today, in the month of Abib, you are going out.5When the Lord brings you into the land of the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Amorites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites, which he swore to your ancestors to give you, a land flowing with milk and honey, you shall keep this observance in this month.6Seven days you shall eat unleavened bread, and on the seventh day there shall be a festival to the Lord.7Unleavened bread shall be eaten for seven days; no leavened bread shall be seen in your possession, and no leaven shall be seen among you in all your territory.8You shall tell your child on that day, ‘It is because of what the Lord did for me when I came out of Egypt.’9It shall serve for you as a sign on your hand and as a reminder on your forehead, so that the teaching of the Lord may be on your lips; for with a strong hand the Lord brought you out of Egypt.10You shall keep this ordinance at its proper time from year to year.The Consecration of the Firstborn
11“When the Lord has brought you into the land of the Canaanites, as he swore to you and your ancestors, and has given it to you,12you shall set apart to the Lord all that first opens the womb. All the firstborn of your livestock that are males shall be the Lord's.13But every firstborn donkey you shall redeem with a sheep; if you do not redeem it, you must break its neck. Every firstborn male among your children you shall redeem.14When in the future your child asks you, ‘What does this mean?’ you shall answer, ‘By strength of hand the Lord brought us out of Egypt, from the house of slavery.15When Pharaoh stubbornly refused to let us go, the Lord killed all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from human firstborn to the firstborn of animals. Therefore I sacrifice to the Lord every male that first opens the womb, but every firstborn of my sons I redeem.’16It shall serve as a sign on your hand and as an emblem on your forehead that by strength of hand the Lord brought us out of Egypt.”The Pillars of Cloud and Fire
17When Pharaoh let the people go, God did not lead them by way of the land of the Philistines, although that was nearer; for God thought, “If the people face war, they may change their minds and return to Egypt.”18So God led the people by the roundabout way of the wilderness toward the Red Sea. The Israelites went up out of the land of Egypt prepared for battle.19And Moses took with him the bones of Joseph who had required a solemn oath of the Israelites, saying, “God will surely take notice of you, and then you must carry my bones with you from here.”20They set out from Succoth, and camped at Etham, on the edge of the wilderness.21The Lord went in front of them in a pillar of cloud by day, to lead them along the way, and in a pillar of fire by night, to give them light, so that they might travel by day and by night.22Neither the pillar of cloud by day nor the pillar of fire by night left its place in front of the people.Chapter 14Crossing the Red Sea
1Then the Lord said to Moses:2“Tell the Israelites to turn back and camp in front of Pi-hahiroth, between Migdol and the sea, in front of Baal-zephon; you shall camp opposite it, by the sea.3Pharaoh will say of the Israelites, ‘They are wandering aimlessly in the land; the wilderness has closed in on them.’4I will harden Pharaoh's heart, and he will pursue them, so that I will gain glory for myself over Pharaoh and all his army; and the Egyptians shall know that I am the Lord.” And they did so.5When the king of Egypt was told that the people had fled, the minds of Pharaoh and his officials were changed toward the people, and they said, “What have we done, letting Israel leave our service?”6So he had his chariot made ready, and took his army with him;7he took six hundred picked chariots and all the other chariots of Egypt with officers over all of them.8The Lord hardened the heart of Pharaoh king of Egypt and he pursued the Israelites, who were going out boldly.9The Egyptians pursued them, all Pharaoh's horses and chariots, his chariot drivers and his army; they overtook them camped by the sea, by Pi-hahiroth, in front of Baal-zephon.10As Pharaoh drew near, the Israelites looked back, and there were the Egyptians advancing on them. In great fear the Israelites cried out to the Lord.11They said to Moses, “Was it because there were no graves in Egypt that you have taken us away to die in the wilderness? What have you done to us, bringing us out of Egypt?12Is this not the very thing we told you in Egypt, ‘Let us alone and let us serve the Egyptians’? For it would have been better for us to serve the Egyptians than to die in the wilderness.”13But Moses said to the people, “Do not be afraid, stand firm, and see the deliverance that the Lord will accomplish for you today; for the Egyptians whom you see today you shall never see again.14The Lord will fight for you, and you have only to keep still.”15Then the Lord said to Moses, “Why do you cry out to me? Tell the Israelites to go forward.16But you lift up your staff, and stretch out your hand over the sea and divide it, that the Israelites may go into the sea on dry ground.17Then I will harden the hearts of the Egyptians so that they will go in after them; and so I will gain glory for myself over Pharaoh and all his army, his chariots, and his chariot drivers.18And the Egyptians shall know that I am the Lord, when I have gained glory for myself over Pharaoh, his chariots, and his chariot drivers.”19The angel of God who was going before the Israelite army moved and went behind them; and the pillar of cloud moved from in front of them and took its place behind them.20It came between the army of Egypt and the army of Israel. And so the cloud was there with the darkness, and it lit up the night; one did not come near the other all night.21Then Moses stretched out his hand over the sea. The Lord drove the sea back by a strong east wind all night, and turned the sea into dry land; and the waters were divided.22The Israelites went into the sea on dry ground, the waters forming a wall for them on their right and on their left.23The Egyptians pursued, and went into the sea after them, all of Pharaoh's horses, chariots, and chariot drivers.24At the morning watch the Lord in the pillar of fire and cloud looked down upon the Egyptian army, and threw the Egyptian army into panic.25He clogged their chariot wheels so that they turned with difficulty. The Egyptians said, “Let us flee from the Israelites, for the Lord is fighting for them against Egypt.”The Pursuers Drowned
26Then the Lord said to Moses, “Stretch out your hand over the sea, so that the water may come back upon the Egyptians, upon their chariots and chariot drivers.”27So Moses stretched out his hand over the sea, and at dawn the sea returned to its normal depth. As the Egyptians fled before it, the Lord tossed the Egyptians into the sea.28The waters returned and covered the chariots and the chariot drivers, the entire army of Pharaoh that had followed them into the sea; not one of them remained.29But the Israelites walked on dry ground through the sea, the waters forming a wall for them on their right and on their left.30Thus the Lord saved Israel that day from the Egyptians; and Israel saw the Egyptians dead on the seashore.31Israel saw the great work that the Lord did against the Egyptians. So the people feared the Lord and believed in the Lord and in his servant Moses.Chapter 15The Song of Moses
1Then Moses and the Israelites sang this song to the Lord:
“I will sing to the Lord, for he has triumphed gloriously;
horse and rider he has thrown into the sea.2The Lord is my strength and my might,
and he has become my salvation;
this is my God, and I will praise him,
my father's God, and I will exalt him.3The Lord is a warrior;
the Lord is his name.
4“Pharaoh's chariots and his army he cast into the sea;
his picked officers were sunk in the Red Sea.5The floods covered them;
they went down into the depths like a stone.6Your right hand, O Lord, glorious in power—
your right hand, O Lord, shattered the enemy.7In the greatness of your majesty you overthrew your adversaries;
you sent out your fury, it consumed them like stubble.8At the blast of your nostrils the waters piled up,
the floods stood up in a heap;
the deeps congealed in the heart of the sea.9The enemy said, ‘I will pursue, I will overtake,
I will divide the spoil, my desire shall have its fill of them.
I will draw my sword, my hand shall destroy them.’10You blew with your wind, the sea covered them;
they sank like lead in the mighty waters.
11“Who is like you, O Lord, among the gods?
Who is like you, majestic in holiness,
awesome in splendor, doing wonders?12You stretched out your right hand,
the earth swallowed them.
13“In your steadfast love you led the people whom you redeemed;
you guided them by your strength to your holy abode.14The peoples heard, they trembled;
pangs seized the inhabitants of Philistia.15Then the chiefs of Edom were dismayed;
trembling seized the leaders of Moab;
all the inhabitants of Canaan melted away.16Terror and dread fell upon them;
by the might of your arm, they became still as a stone
until your people, O Lord, passed by,
until the people whom you acquired passed by.17You brought them in and planted them on the mountain of your own possession,
the place, O Lord, that you made your abode,
the sanctuary, O Lord, that your hands have established.18The Lord will reign forever and ever.”19When the horses of Pharaoh with his chariots and his chariot drivers went into the sea, the Lord brought back the waters of the sea upon them; but the Israelites walked through the sea on dry ground.The Song of Miriam
20Then the prophet Miriam, Aaron's sister, took a tambourine in her hand; and all the women went out after her with tambourines and with dancing.21And Miriam sang to them:
“Sing to the Lord, for he has triumphed gloriously;
horse and rider he has thrown into the sea.”Bitter Water Made Sweet
22Then Moses ordered Israel to set out from the Red Sea, and they went into the wilderness of Shur. They went three days in the wilderness and found no water.23When they came to Marah, they could not drink the water of Marah because it was bitter. That is why it was called Marah.24And the people complained against Moses, saying, “What shall we drink?”25He cried out to the Lord; and the Lord showed him a piece of wood; he threw it into the water, and the water became sweet.
There the Lord! made for them a statute and an ordinance and there he put them to the test.26He said, “If you will listen carefully to the voice of the Lord your God, and do what is right in his sight, and give heed to his commandments and keep all his statutes, I will not bring upon you any of the diseases that I brought upon the Egyptians; for I am the Lord who heals you.”27Then they came to Elim, where there were twelve springs of water and seventy palm trees; and they camped there by the water.