Q. Do we know who wrote the book of Job? Or when it was written?
A. The short answer is: we don't know. Ancient scribes didn't usually sign writings in the ancient world. Unlike today, ancient people didn't listen to a story and think: "I wonder who wrote that?" They didn't care about that question mainly because all the best stories had already been passed down for many generations by the time they were considered good stories.
In the book of Ezekiel, we hear a short version of the Job story where Job saves his children through his faithfulness (Ezek 14:14, Ezek 14:20), which does not seem to correspond to the biblical book of Job. We also see a lively ancient tradition about a Job-figure who is always patient and never erupts in anger at God, as he does throughout the biblical version (see the Testament of Job and perhaps Jas 5:11, and compare to Job 9). This suggests that there were many stories about Job in the ancient world, and what we find in the Bible is only one of them.
But we do know some things about how the biblical book was written. Scholars are fairly confident that several hands, at least, are responsible for the book of Job. The striking differences in both genre and attitude between the prose prologue and epilogue (Job 1:1-2:11; Job 42:7-17) and the poetic discourses in the middle of the book (Job 3:1-42:6) suggest that an earlier version of a folktale was expanded with the dialogues. Some scholars point to seemingly different features of the Elihu speeches (Job 32-37) to argue that he was a later addition to the poetic discourses. And later still, the Jewish scribes responsible for the Old Greek version of the scriptures trimmed down the poetic section, particularly in the last third of the discourses, likely to make the book more palatable to changing literary tastes.
So, when did these compositions and editorial activities occur? Some scholars have argued for an early date around the 10th century B.C.E., because of its seemingly archaic diction and references to older forms of currency (Job 42:11). But other scholars, including Edward Greenstein, have demonstrated that the language is not actually archaic—it merely looks archaic in order to give the flavor of antiquity. Similarly, in the book of Job, the words sound vaguely Transjordanian, which signals its setting in a faraway land in an ancient time.
Based on resonances with Second Isaiah (for example, Job 9:8, Isa 44:24), Lamentations (Job 19:7-8, Lam 3:7-9), and Jeremiah (Job 3:3, Job 3:10-11, Jer 20:14-18), which are all exilic texts, one can imagine that the biblical text of Job developed from traditional materials during the period of the Exile. This makes sense contextually, because the themes of Job and the bitterness of the poetic dialogues would have resonated with readers of that time. Moreover, the reference to raiding Chaldeans in the Transjordan (Job 1:15-17) would make sense only during the relatively brief period of the Neo-Babylonian Empire. This would place the poetic dialogues somewhere in the sixth or fifth centuries B.C.E., produced by scribes attempting to explore the theological and ethical ramifications of the experience of exile and the destruction of Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem. Possible editing and further compositional work, including Elihu's speeches, would have a fourth-to-third century date. The book also appears in the Dead Sea Scrolls, so the latest date of compositional work in the proto-Masoretic version would be 200 B.C.E.
Brennan Breed is assistant professor of Old Testament at Columbia Theological Seminary. Much of his research focuses on the reception history of the Bible, which studies the ways in which biblical texts function in diverse contexts in liturgy, theology, visual art, literature, and politics.
The historical period from the beginning of Western civilization to the start of the Middle Ages.
Of or relating to ancient lower Mesopotamia and its empire centered in Babylon.
A collection of Jewish texts (biblical, apocryphal, and sectarian) from around the time of Christ that were preserved near the Dead Sea and rediscovered in the 20th century.
A broad, diverse group of nations ruled by the government of a single nation.
general condition of living away from ones homeland or specifically the Babylonian captivity
A category or type, often of literary work.
Of or related to the written word, especially that which is considered literature; literary criticism is a interpretative method that has been adapted to biblical analysis.
Relating to the Masoretes, a group of medieval scribes who preserved and transmitted the written Hebrew text of the Bible. Or, the Masoretic Text itself, an authoritative Hebrew text of the Hebrew Bible.
A work dating from the first century B.C.E. to the first century C.E. that describes Job’s final conversation with his family before his death. It gives both the “accuser” figure and Job’s wife greater roles than in the biblical text.
Relating to thought about the nature and behavior of God.
Literally "across the Jordan," generally used to refer to the land lying immediately to the east of the Jordan River, which according to the Hebrew Bible includes some Israelite tribal territory, along with the territory of neighboring nations such as Ammon and Moab.
The Transjordan is the region east of the Jordan River in the Southern Levant, described in Numbers 34:15 as home to the tribes of Gad, Reuben, and half of Manasseh. The Transjordan was also home to the Ammonites and the Moabites.
The third division of the Jewish canon, also called by the Hebrew name Ketuvim. The other two divisions are the Torah (Pentateuch) and Nevi'im (Prophets); together the three divisions create the acronym Tanakh, the Jewish term for the Hebrew Bible.
14even if Noah, Daniel, and Job, these three, were in it, they would save only their own lives by their righteousness, says the Lord GOD.
20even if Noah, Daniel, and Job were in it, as I live, says the Lord GOD, they would save neither son nor daughter; they would save only their own lives by thei ... View more
11Indeed we call blessed those who showed endurance. You have heard of the endurance of Job, and you have seen the purpose of the Lord, how the Lord is compassi ... View more
Job and His Family
1There was once a man in the land of Uz whose name was Job. That man was blameless and upright, one who feared God and turned away from evil.
Job's Friends Are Humiliated
7After the Lord had spoken these words to Job, the Lord said to Eliphaz the Temanite: “My wrath is kindled against you and against ... View more
Job Curses the Day He Was Born
1After this Job opened his mouth and cursed the day of his birth.
3“Let the day perish in which I was born,
and the nigh ... View more
Elihu Rebukes Job's Friends
1So these three men ceased to answer Job, because he was righteous in his own eyes.
2Then Elihu son of Barachel the Buzite, of the fa ... View more
11Then there came to him all his brothers and sisters and all who had known him before, and they ate bread with him in his house; they showed him sympathy and c ... View more
8who alone stretched out the heavens
and trampled the waves of the Sea;
24Thus says the Lord, your Redeemer,
who formed you in the womb:
I am the Lord, who made all things,
who alone stretched out the heavens,
who by myself spread o ... View more
7Even when I cry out, ‘Violence!’ I am not answered;
I call aloud, but there is no justice.
8He has walled up my way so that I cannot pass,
and he has set darkne ... View more
7He has walled me about so that I cannot escape;
he has put heavy chains on me;
8though I call and cry for help,
he shuts out my prayer;
9he has blocked my ways w ... View more
3“Let the day perish in which I was born,
and the night that said,
‘A man-child is conceived.’
10because it did not shut the doors of my mother's womb,
and hide trouble from my eyes.
11“Why did I not die at birth,
come forth from the womb and expire?
14Cursed be the day
on which I was born!
The day when my mother bore me,
let it not be blessed!
15Cursed be the man
who brought the news to my father, saying,
“A ... View more
15and the Sabeans fell on them and carried them off, and killed the servants with the edge of the sword; I alone have escaped to tell you.”
16While he was still ... View more