Egyptian Influences on the Biblical Text
by Bernd U. Schipper
Even though Egypt plays a central role in the Bible, Egyptian influence on the biblical text is not very great. The Bible knows relatively little about Egypt as a state. Only four pharaohs are mentioned, none of whom ruled during the historical period in which the biblical chronology locates the exodus narrative and the Joseph story. All four pharaohs are rulers from the first half of the first millennium B.C.E., and three of them can be dated to the seventh and sixth centuries B.C.E. (Tirhakah, 2Kgs 19:9; Neco II, 2Kgs 23:29; and Hophra, Jer 44:30). Twelve Egyptian cities are mentioned in the Hebrew Bible and only one in the New Testament (Alexandria, Acts 18:24).
The exodus narrative offers only general knowledge of Egypt. The Joseph story is more specific, as it mentions three Egyptian names and several Egyptian motifs. The embalming of Jacob (Gen 50:2-3) and Joseph (Gen 50:26) can be compared with Egyptian practice; Joseph dies at the age of 110 years (Gen 50:22), which was an ideal age in ancient Egypt; and the literary motif of the seven years of famine (Gen 41:30) can be found in an Egyptian text as well.
The biblical text demonstrates some knowledge of Egyptian religion. References to Egyptian deities can be found in several personal names: Asenath (from the goddess Neith; Gen 41:45); Harnepher (from the falcon-headed god Horus; 1Chr 7:36); Potiphera (from the sun god Re; Gen 46:20); and Pashhur (from Horus; Jer 20:1-3). The portrayal of a god who provides for humans and animals and who helps and rescues can be found in both biblical Psalms (Ps 65:10-14, Ps 30:2-4) and Egyptian hymns. The concept of the creation of the world by the “divine word” is familiar to both the Bible (Gen 1, Ps 33:6-9) and Egypt. In terms of influence, the biblical Song of Songs shares similarities with Egyptian love songs from the late second millennium B.C.E. Finally, the idea of a “judgment of the heart” can be found in Ps 26:2, and Job 31 alludes to the avowal of innocence at the judgment of the dead, an important concept in Egyptian religion (Book of the Dead, chapter 125). Also in Job, the description of the animals “Behemoth” (Job 40:15-24) and “Leviathan” (Job 41:1-34) can be linked to Egyptian mythology (hippopotamus and crocodile).
Direct literary parallels can be found in only three biblical texts. Psalm 104, a creation psalm, shares a number of motifs with the Great Hymn to the Aten from the Amarna period (14th–13th centuries B.C.E.). In the book of Proverbs, a whole paragraph (Prov 22:17-24:22) draws on an Egyptian wisdom text (the Instruction of Amenemope). And in the prophetic books, one of the oracles against Egypt seems to have been composed using an Egyptian tradition (Isa 19 and the Egyptian Oracle of the Potter).
In sum, the degree of Egyptian influence on the biblical text is remarkably low. The relatively few cases of Egyptian influence most likely occurred through two modes of cultural contact: indirect contact that occurred during the transition from the second to the first millennium B.C.E., when Egypt controlled the southern Levant, and direct contact that began in the late eighth/early seventh centuries B.C.E.
Bernd U. Schipper holds the chair in Old Testament/Hebrew Bible at the Humboldt University of Berlin. He edited (with D. Andrew Teeter) the volume Wisdom and Torah: The Reception of Torah in the Wisdom Literature of the Second Temple Period (Brill, 2013).
An Egyptian archaeological site built by Akhenaten and notable for its cache of ancient diplomatic letters.
The Egyptian sun god, who was particularly venerated by the monotheist King Akhenaten.
Gods or goddesses; powerful supernatural figures worshipped by humans.
Characteristic of a deity (a god or goddess).
migration of the ancient Israelites from Egypt into Canaan
A West Semitic language, in which most of the Hebrew Bible is written except for parts of Daniel and Ezra. Hebrew is regarded as the spoken language of ancient Israel but is largely replaced by Aramaic in the Persian period.
Egyptian god associated with kingship. Son of Isis and Osiris.
A song or poem that is religious in nature.
Egyptian wisdom text which dates to between the 14th to 11th centuries B.C.E., which contains several parallel sayings in Proverbs.
The countries bordering the eastern Mediterranean sea, from the Sinai in Egypt to Aleppo in Syria.
Of or related to the written word, especially that which is considered literature; literary criticism is a interpretative method that has been adapted to biblical analysis.
A recurring element or symbolism in artwork, literature, and other forms of expression.
A written, spoken, or recorded story.
A collection of first-century Jewish and early Christian writings that, along with the Old Testament, makes up the Christian Bible.
Those biblical books written by or attributed to prophets such as Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel.
9When the king heard concerning King Tirhakah of Ethiopia, “See, he has set out to fight against you,” he sent messengers again to Hezekiah, saying,
29In his days Pharaoh Neco king of Egypt went up to the king of Assyria to the river Euphrates. King Josiah went to meet him; but when Pharaoh Neco met him at M ... View more
30Thus says the Lord, I am going to give Pharaoh Hophra, king of Egypt, into the hands of his enemies, those who seek his life, just as I gave King Zedekiah of ... View more
Ministry of Apollos
24Now there came to Ephesus a Jew named Apollos, a native of Alexandria. He was an eloquent man, well-versed in the scriptures.
2Joseph commanded the physicians in his service to embalm his father. So the physicians embalmed Israel;3they spent forty days in doing this, for that is the ti ... View more
26And Joseph died, being one hundred ten years old; he was embalmed and placed in a coffin in Egypt.
Joseph's Last Days and Death
22So Joseph remained in Egypt, he and his father's household; and Joseph lived one hundred ten years.
30After them there will arise seven years of famine, and all the plenty will be forgotten in the land of Egypt; the famine will consume the land.
45Pharaoh gave Joseph the name Zaphenath-paneah; and he gave him Asenath daughter of Potiphera, priest of On, as his wife. Thus Joseph gained authority over the ... View more
36The sons of Zophah: Suah, Harnepher, Shual, Beri, Imrah,
20To Joseph in the land of Egypt were born Manasseh and Ephraim, whom Asenath daughter of Potiphera, priest of On, bore to him.
Jeremiah Persecuted by Pashhur
1Now the priest Pashhur son of Immer, who was chief officer in the house of the Lord, heard Jeremiah prophesying these things.2Th ... View more
2O Lord my God, I cried to you for help,
and you have healed me.3O Lord, you brought up my soul from Sheol,
restored me to life from among those gone down to th ... View more
Six Days of Creation and the Sabbath
1In the beginning when God created the heavens and the earth,2the earth was a formless void and darkness covered the face o ... View more
6By the word of the Lord the heavens were made,
and all their host by the breath of his mouth.7He gathered the waters of the sea as in a bottle;
he put the deep ... View more
2Prove me, O Lord, and try me;
test my heart and mind.
1“I have made a covenant with my eyes;
how then could I look upon a virgin?2What would be my portion from God above,
and my heritage from the Almighty on high?3 ... View more
15“Look at Behemoth,
which I made just as I made you;
it eats grass like an ox.16Its strength is in its loins,
and its power in the muscles of its belly.17It ma ... View more
1 “Can you draw out Leviathan with a fishhook,
or press down its tongue with a cord?2Can you put a rope in its nose,
or pierce its jaw with a hook?3Will it make ... View more
Sayings of the Wise
17The words of the wise:
Incline your ear and hear my words,
and apply your mind to my teaching;18for it will be pleasant if you keep them ... View more
An Oracle concerning Egypt
1An oracle concerning Egypt.
See, the Lord is riding on a swift cloud
and comes to Egypt;
the idols of Egypt will tremble at his pre ... View more