Places

Bethlehem by Michael F. Bird

In the aftermath of the Babylonian conquest of Judah and Jerusalem, the Jewish community was left without a king—a situation that would gradually give rise to messianic expectations about the restoration of the Davidic dynasty. Bethlehem is familiar to readers of the Bible principally because that city was prophesied to be the location where a new Davidic king would be born and, according to the story of the nativity, it is the place of Jesus’s birth (see Mic 5:2; Matt 2:1-18; Luke 2:1-20; John 7:42).

What was the significance of Bethlehem in ancient Israel?

Bethlehem of Judah is located 8 kilometers (5 miles) south-southwest of Jerusalem with an elevation of 762 meters (2500 feet). The city is situated within the hill country of Judah, part of a central mountain range that runs north-south through much of Palestine (the ancient Roman name for the region). But note that there is another Bethlehem located in Galilee, a village in the tribal territory of Zebulun (Josh 19:15).

The origins of Judean Bethlehem are uncertain, but archaeological records indicate that it existed as far back as the fourteenth century B.C.E. Excavations of the city have shown evidence of Bronze and Iron Age settlements. The city is first mentioned in the Bible in connection with the nearby Ephrath as the burial place for Rachel, the wife of the patriarch Jacob (Gen 35:19, Gen 48:7). Salma, a grandson of Caleb, is called the “father of Bethlehem” (1Chr 2:51) and is associated with its founding. The city was probably established as an Israelite settlement during the time of Judges (ca. 12th-11th centuries B.C.E.).

Bethlehem is most well known for its association with epic violence and Davidic kingship. Bethlehem was the home of an Ephraimite Levite and his concubine, and her murder sparked an intertribal war that resulted in the near destruction of the tribe of Benjamin (Judg 19-20). But it was not all blood and gore! Bethlehem had a close association with the Davidic monarchy and the hope for a new David in the postexilic era. In the book of Ruth, Elimelek and Naomi were from Bethlehem, and Naomi returned to Bethlehem from Moab with her widowed daughter-in-law Ruth, who soon married her kinsman-redeemer Boaz. In that story, Boaz and Ruth were the ancestors of King David (Ruth 4:17-22). The prophet Samuel anointed David as King of Israel in Bethlehem (1Sam 16:1-13). In the postexilic period, the prophet Micah prophesied that God was going to raise up a new Davidic king from the city of Bethlehem (Mic 5:2). Thus, Bethlehem was the place where David’s reign began and from which a new Davidic king would again come.

Was Jesus really born in Bethlehem?

The evangelists Matthew and Luke both narrate that Jesus was born in Bethlehem. However, many scholars conclude that Jesus was probably born in Nazareth rather than in Bethlehem, arguing that New Testament authors often tended to portray Jesus as the fulfillment of the Jewish scriptures; therefore, they may have made up the story of Jesus’s birth in Bethlehem as a way of interpreting Mic 5:2 in hindsight. In addition, an empire-wide census that required everyone to return to their hometowns strikes many scholars as implausible (Luke 2:1-4).

Then again, Bethlehem did not figure widely in Jewish messianic hopes, and there was no absolute necessity to spin a story about Jesus born in Bethlehem in order to legitimize him as Messiah (Mark and Paul do not seem to know of any tradition about Jesus born in Bethlehem and yet still think of Jesus as the Messiah). And while an empire-wide census is certainly unlikely, the need to return to ancestral lands to claim property or to register for taxation was not unprecedented. In any event, according to some New Testament writers, Jesus was born in Bethlehem as a fulfillment of biblical prophecy. This claim also related Jesus implicitly to the tradition of Davidic kingship, which had messianic overtones.

Michael F. Bird, "Bethlehem", n.p. [cited 21 Sep 2017]. Online: http://bibleodyssey.org/en/places/main-articles/bethlehem

Contributors

Michael F. Bird

Michael F. Bird
Lecturer, Ridley Melbourne College of Mission and Ministry

Michael Bird is lecturer in theology at Ridley Melbourne College of Mission and Ministry in Melbourne, Australia. He is the author of The Saving Righteousness of God (Wipf & Stock, 2007), Jesus Is the Christ: The Messianic Testimony of the Gospels (IVP Academic, 2013), and A Bird’s-Eye View of Paul (Intervarsity Press, 2008).

The city of Bethlehem, located several kilometers south of Jerusalem, was an Israelite town where David was anointed king of Israel and, according to Christian tradition, was also the birthplace of Jesus.

Did you know…?

  • In Hebrew, beth-lehem means literally “house of bread.”
  • The birth of Jesus probably took place around 6 B.C.E. rather than 1 C.E.
  • The Greek word kataluma more properly means “guest room” rather than “inn.”
  • Jesus was born in a stable, not because all the hotels were full but because the guest room of the relatives with whom Joseph and Mary were staying was already overcrowded with guests.
  • Today Bethlehem (Bet Lahm in Arabic) is located in the Occupied Palestinian Territories and has a population of 25,000.

Of or relating to ancient lower Mesopotamia and its empire centered in Babylon.

A sequence of rulers from the same family.

Birth, often accounts about the birth of Jesus.

Mic 5:2

The Ruler from Bethlehem
2 But you, O Bethlehem of Ephrathah,
who are one of the little clans of Judah,
from you shall come forth for me
one who is to rule in I ... View more

Matt 2:1-18

The Visit of the Wise Men
1In the time of King Herod, after Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea, wise men from the East came to Jerusalem,2asking, “Where is th ... View more

Luke 2:1-20

The Birth of Jesus
1In those days a decree went out from Emperor Augustus that all the world should be registered.2This was the first registration and was taken ... View more

John 7:42

42Has not the scripture said that the Messiah is descended from David and comes from Bethlehem, the village where David lived?”

Relating to or associated with people living in the territory of the northern kingdom of Israel during the divided monarchy, or more broadly describing the biblical descendants of Jacob.

The stage of development during which humans used iron weapons; in the ancient Near East, approx. 1200 to 500 B.C.E.

Relating to or associated with people living in the territory of the southern kingdom of Judah during the divided monarchy, or what later became the larger province of Judah under imperial control. According to the Bible, the area originally received its name as the tribal territory allotted to Judah, the fourth son of Jacob.

A system of rule with a monarch as its head; or the hereditary system passed from one monarch to another.

Another name often used for the area of Israel and Judah, derived from the Latin term for the Roman province of Palaestina; ultimately, the name derives from the name of the Philistine people.

Relating to the period in Judean history following the Babylonian exile (587–539 B.C.E.), also known as the Persian period, during which the exiles were allowed to return to Judea and rebuild the temple in Jerusalem.

The period in Judean history following the Babylonian exile (587–539 B.C.E.), also known as the Persian period, during which the exiles were allowed to return to Judea and rebuild the temple in Jerusalem.

Related to tribes, especially the so-called ten tribes of Israel.

Josh 19:15

15and Kattath, Nahalal, Shimron, Idalah, and Bethlehem—twelve towns with their villages.

Gen 35:19

19So Rachel died, and she was buried on the way to Ephrath (that is, Bethlehem),

Gen 48:7

7For when I came from Paddan, Rachel, alas, died in the land of Canaan on the way, while there was still some distance to go to Ephrath; and I buried her there ... View more

1Chr 2:51

51Salma father of Bethlehem, and Hareph father of Beth-gader.

Judg 19-20

The Levite's Concubine
1In those days, when there was no king in Israel, a certain Levite, residing in the remote parts of the hill country of Ephraim, took to ... View more

Ruth 4:17-22

17The women of the neighborhood gave him a name, saying, “A son has been born to Naomi.” They named him Obed; he became the father of Jesse, the father of David ... View more

1Sam 16:1-13

David Anointed as King
1The Lord said to Samuel, “How long will you grieve over Saul? I have rejected him from being king over Israel. Fill your horn with oil a ... View more

Mic 5:2

The Ruler from Bethlehem
2 But you, O Bethlehem of Ephrathah,
who are one of the little clans of Judah,
from you shall come forth for me
one who is to rule in I ... View more

A broad, diverse group of nations ruled by the government of a single nation.

A collection of first-century Jewish and early Christian writings that, along with the Old Testament, makes up the Christian Bible.

An inspired message related by a prophet; also, the process whereby a prophet relates inspired messages to others.

Mic 5:2

The Ruler from Bethlehem
2 But you, O Bethlehem of Ephrathah,
who are one of the little clans of Judah,
from you shall come forth for me
one who is to rule in I ... View more

Luke 2:1-4

The Birth of Jesus
1In those days a decree went out from Emperor Augustus that all the world should be registered.2This was the first registration and was taken ... View more

A West Semitic language, in which most of the Hebrew Bible is written except for parts of Daniel and Ezra. Hebrew is regarded as the spoken language of ancient Israel but is largely replaced by Aramaic in the Persian period.

Belonging to the ancient region of Israel and Judah, derived from the Latin name for the Roman province of Palaestina.

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