Paul and the Kingdom by Paula Fredriksen

Through Paul’s seven undisputedly authentic letters we glimpse Paul’s deepest convictions. Chief among these was his belief that the god of Israel, through the agency of his son, the risen and returning Messiah, was about to end history, raise the dead, defeat evil, and establish his everlasting kingdom (1Cor 15, Rom 11, Rom 15).

Paul seems to have first encountered the new Jesus movement through a synagogue community in Damascus. His initial response was hostile: he “persecuted” these other Jewish apostles, though he does not say why or how (Gal 1:13, Phil 3:6). But, at some point shortly thereafter, Paul himself had a vision of the risen Christ. This event turned Paul from persecutor to apostle (Gal 1:14-16, 1Cor 15:8-10), convincing him that the kingdom of God was at hand.

Jewish apocalyptic traditions had long enunciated such a belief—namely, that when the kingdom (and/or the Messiah) came, the dead would be raised. This is the context within which Paul interprets Jesus’ resurrection: It signified that the general resurrection would shortly come (1Cor 15:16, 1Cor 15:20). Christ’s resurrection indicated and initiated the turning of the ages; his return in power would trigger these final apocalyptic events.

But when would this larger resurrection come? Christ first had to return. Thereafter, defeating all the hostile cosmic powers ranged against God (including “the last enemy,” death, per 1Cor 15:26), Christ would hand over the kingdom to his divine father (1Cor 15:23-26). It was as part of these dramatic end-time events—the final revelation of the Messiah, the defeat of death, of evil, and of false gods—that the dead would be raised and the living transformed (1Cor 15:44-50). These events, Paul everywhere insists, would occur before long (1Thess 1:9-10, 1Thess 4:13-17, Rom 13:11-12, 1Cor 7:26-29).

Paul’s letters are so early—from the middle years of the first century—that it is easy for us to overlook an odd fact: by the time that Paul wrote them, the kingdom was late. How had Paul maintained his apocalyptic convictions in the face of the kingdom’s (and the returning Messiah’s) ever-lengthening delay?

The way that Paul understood his witness to the risen Christ gives us our answer. God, revealing his son to (or in) Paul, he says, had thereby “called” him to “proclaim him [Christ] among the “pagans” (or “Gentiles”: the word is the same in Greek; Gal 1:14-16). Paul absolutely demanded that baptized pagans had to cease sacrificing to their native gods and instead make an exclusive commitment to the god of Israel (for example, 1Cor 8:5-6, 1Thess 1:9-10). Once Christ returned to establish his father’s kingdom, the “full number” of pagans would be swept up together with “all Israel” in the final redemption long before promised to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob (Rom 11:26-28; see also Rom 15:7-9).

The pagan destruction of idols, the final turning of the Gentiles and even of their gods (Ps 97:7; Phil 2:10) to Israel’s god, was yet another strong apocalyptic motif, expressed in the classical prophets and in many other Jewish extrabiblical writings. This expectation informs Paul’s gospel. His success (and that of others) in turning pagans away from cosmic gods and toward the god of Israel was further proof, for Paul, that he lived and worked in history’s final hour. Accordingly, with undimmed conviction, Paul could proclaim even in what may be his final letter that “salvation is nearer to us now than when we first believed,” (Rom 13:11 RSV). Marana tha: “Our Lord, come!” (1Cor 16:22).

Paula Fredriksen, "Paul and the Kingdom", n.p. [cited 27 Mar 2017]. Online: http://bibleodyssey.org/en/people/related-articles/paul-and-the-kingdom

Contributors

Paula Fredrikson

Paula Fredriksen
Professor, Hebrew University

Paula Fredriksen, Aurelio Professor of Scripture emerita at Boston University, now teaches at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. Paul features prominently in her books about Jesus (From Jesus to Christ, 1988/2000; Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews, 1999) and about Augustine (Augustine and the Jews: A Christian Defense of Jews and Judaism, 2010). In Sin: The Early History of an Idea (2012), she compares the ways in which Jesus and Paul speak about sin, forgiveness, and redemption.

Paul the apostle, in keeping with strong Jewish apocalyptic traditions, believed that through Christ, Gentiles would be included in God’s impending redemption of all Israel.

Genuine; historically accurate.

Characteristic of a deity (a god or goddess).

A period of time that appears most often in apocalyptic texts and refers to a future time marked by radical change, at the end of human history.

A gospel is an account that describes the life of Jesus of Nazareth.

(n.) One who adheres to traditional or polytheistic religious and spiritual belief and practice systems; sometimes used to refer broadly to anyone who does not adhere to biblical monotheism.

1Cor 15

The Resurrection of Christ
1Now I would remind you, brothers and sisters, of the good news that I proclaimed to you, which you in turn received, in which also y ... View more

Rom 11

Israel's Rejection Is Not Final
1I ask, then, has God rejected his people? By no means! I myself am an Israelite, a descendant of Abraham, a member of the tribe ... View more

Rom 15

Please Others, Not Yourselves
1We who are strong ought to put up with the failings of the weak, and not to please ourselves.2Each of us must please our neighbor ... View more

Gal 1:13

13You have heard, no doubt, of my earlier life in Judaism. I was violently persecuting the church of God and was trying to destroy it.

Phil 3:6

6as to zeal, a persecutor of the church; as to righteousness under the law, blameless.

Gal 1:14-16

14I advanced in Judaism beyond many among my people of the same age, for I was far more zealous for the traditions of my ancestors.15But when God, who had set m ... View more

1Cor 15:8-10

8Last of all, as to one untimely born, he appeared also to me.9For I am the least of the apostles, unfit to be called an apostle, because I persecuted the churc ... View more

1Cor 15:16

16For if the dead are not raised, then Christ has not been raised.

1Cor 15:20

20But in fact Christ has been raised from the dead, the first fruits of those who have died.

1Cor 15:26

26The last enemy to be destroyed is death.

1Cor 15:23-26

23But each in his own order: Christ the first fruits, then at his coming those who belong to Christ.24Then comes the end, when he hands over the kingdom to God ... View more

1Cor 15:44-50

44It is sown a physical body, it is raised a spiritual body. If there is a physical body, there is also a spiritual body.45Thus it is written, “The first man, A ... View more

1Thess 1:9-10

9For the people of those regions report about us what kind of welcome we had among you, and how you turned to God from idols, to serve a living and true God,10a ... View more

1Thess 4:13-17

The Coming of the Lord
13But we do not want you to be uninformed, brothers and sisters, about those who have died, so that you may not grieve as others do who h ... View more

Rom 13:11-12

An Urgent Appeal
11Besides this, you know what time it is, how it is now the moment for you to wake from sleep. For salvation is nearer to us now than when we b ... View more

1Cor 7:26-29

26I think that, in view of the impending crisis, it is well for you to remain as you are.27Are you bound to a wife? Do not seek to be free. Are you free from a ... View more

Gal 1:14-16

14I advanced in Judaism beyond many among my people of the same age, for I was far more zealous for the traditions of my ancestors.15But when God, who had set m ... View more

1Cor 8:5-6

5Indeed, even though there may be so-called gods in heaven or on earth—as in fact there are many gods and many lords—6yet for us there is one God, the Father, f ... View more

1Thess 1:9-10

9For the people of those regions report about us what kind of welcome we had among you, and how you turned to God from idols, to serve a living and true God,10a ... View more

Rom 11:26-28

26And so all Israel will be saved; as it is written,
“Out of Zion will come the Deliverer;
he will banish ungodliness from Jacob.”27“And this is my covenant wit ... View more

Rom 15:7-9

The Gospel for Jews and Gentiles Alike
7Welcome one another, therefore, just as Christ has welcomed you, for the glory of God.8For I tell you that Christ has be ... View more

Ps 97:7

7All worshipers of images are put to shame,
those who make their boast in worthless idols;
all gods bow down before him.

Phil 2:10

10so that at the name of Jesus
every knee should bend,
in heaven and on earth and under the earth,

Rom 13:11

An Urgent Appeal
11Besides this, you know what time it is, how it is now the moment for you to wake from sleep. For salvation is nearer to us now than when we b ... View more

1Cor 16:22

22Let anyone be accursed who has no love for the Lord. Our Lord, come!

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