The exodus—the story of the Israelites’ deliverance from oppression in the land of Egypt—is retold in the Hebrew Bible and in the New Testament. Scholars call such recurrences of the story’s themes and language outside of the book of Exodus “the exodus tradition.” This tradition is found especially in Deuteronomy, in the historical books, in the Prophets, and as a paradigm for the salvation announced in the New Testament. The figure of Moses as the leader of the exodus and the source of divine law appears not only in Exodus and Deuteronomy but also in the latest books of the Hebrew canon, such as Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, and Daniel.
Markers of the exodus tradition include well-known names, words, phrases, and motifs that run through the books of the Bible, as at the beginning of the Ten Commandments: “I am the Lord your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of slavery” (Exod 20:2), a passage that also appears in Deut 5:6 and several times throughout the Deuteronomistic History (the books of Deuteronomy, Joshua, 1-2 Samuel, and 1-2 Kings) Similar language appears, for example, in the book of the prophet Micah (Mic 6:4).
The prophets (for example, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Hosea) frequently cite the divine redemption of the exodus to rebuke Israel for being faithless and ungrateful but also to encourage Israel during the exile with a promise of deliverance even greater than the exodus (Isa 43). In Isa 19, divine justice against Egypt takes the form of civil strife, oppression by a tyrant, and drought, leading the Egyptians to worship the God of Israel. In the Psalms (particularly Ps 29:3-4, Ps 29:10, and Ps 78), the exodus also reminds Israel of divine rescue, often in terms of the cosmos and nature as well as history: “He divided the sea and let them pass through it, and made the waters stand like a heap” (Ps 78:13).
Retellings and allusions to the exodus tradition continue in the New Testament, as in Acts 7, where the exodus and its aftermath lead to the arrival, betrayal, and triumph of Jesus. In the Gospels, a Passover celebration provides the occasion and the theological context for the Last Supper and Jesus’ arrest, execution, and resurrection. The “new covenant” (Luke 22:20), which echoes a reference to the exodus and a new covenant in Jer 31:31-32, comes to suggest that the exodus tradition has been echoed and perhaps superseded by Jesus’ activity (2Cor 3:6, Heb 8-9).
The prevalence of the exodus tradition in the Bible demonstrates its importance as a foundational collective memory from ancient Israel that predates the monarchy and survives into the time of the early rabbis and followers of Jesus. Postbiblical exodus traditions take many forms, from the Jewish observance of Passover to Christian celebrations of Easter, Muslim teachings about the Prophet Musa, and modern liberation theologies. Though many modern readers have asked whether episodes of the exodus, from the plagues in Egypt to the parting of the Red Sea, “really happened,” the exodus remains one of the most powerful narratives of divine compassion and liberation found in the Bible.
Brian M. Britt is a professor in the Department of Religion and Culture at Virginia Tech. He works at the intersection of cultural theory and biblical studies on questions of modernity and tradition. His most recent book is Biblical Curses and the Displacement of Tradition (Sheffield Phoenix, 2011). His other books are Walter Benjamin and the Bible (Continuum, 1996); Rewriting Moses: The Narrative Eclipse of the Text (T&T Clark/Continuum, 2004); and the coedited volume (with Alexandra Cuffel) Religion, Gender, and Culture in the Pre-Modern World (Palgrave, 2007).
migration of the ancient Israelites from Egypt into Canaan
Indirect references to another idea or document.
An authoritative collection of texts generally accepted as scripture.
Related to the religious beliefs connected to Deuteronomy, which emphasized monotheism, the Jerusalem temple, observance of the Law, and the destruction of idolatry.
Characteristic of a deity (a god or goddess).
The Christian springtime holiday that celebrates Jesus's resurrection.
general condition of living away from ones homeland or specifically the Babylonian captivity
A West Semitic language, in which most of the Hebrew Bible is written except for parts of Daniel and Ezra. Hebrew is regarded as the spoken language of ancient Israel but is largely replaced by Aramaic in the Persian period.
Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings, and sometimes also includes Ezra-Neh and Chronicles.
A system of rule with a monarch as its head; or the hereditary system passed from one monarch to another.
A recurring element or symbolism in artwork, literature, and other forms of expression.
A collection of first-century Jewish and early Christian writings that, along with the Old Testament, makes up the Christian Bible.
Of or related to history after the writing of the canonical Bible; can also mean transcending a culture that focuses on the Bible.
The promise made by Yahweh to the ancestors in Genesis, including the promise of offspring, land, and blessing. Eventually the covenant becomes the essential part of this promise.
Relating to thought about the nature and behavior of God.
2I am the Lord your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of slavery;
6I am the Lord your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of slavery;
4For I brought you up from the land of Egypt,
and redeemed you from the house of slavery;
and I sent before you Moses,
Aaron, and Miriam.
Restoration and Protection Promised
1But now thus says the Lord,
he who created you, O Jacob,
he who formed you, O Israel:
Do not fear, for I have redeemed you;
An Oracle concerning Egypt
1An oracle concerning Egypt.
See, the Lord is riding on a swift cloud
and comes to Egypt;
the idols of Egypt will tremble at his pre ... View more
3The voice of the Lord is over the waters;
the God of glory thunders,
the Lord, over mighty waters.
4The voice of the Lord is powerful;
the voice of the Lord is ... View more
10The Lord sits enthroned over the flood;
the Lord sits enthroned as king forever.
God's Goodness and Israel's Ingratitude
A Maskil of Asaph.
1Give ear, O my people, to my teaching;
incline your ears to the words of my mouth.
2I will open my mo ... View more
13He divided the sea and let them pass through it,
and made the waters stand like a heap.
Stephen's Speech to the Council
1Then the high priest asked him, “Are these things so?”
2And Stephen replied:
“Brothers and fathers, listen to me. The God of glo ... View more
20And he did the same with the cup after supper, saying, “This cup that is poured out for you is the new covenant in my blood.
A New Covenant
31The days are surely coming, says the Lord, when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and the house of Judah.
32It will not be lik ... View more
6who has made us competent to be ministers of a new covenant, not of letter but of spirit; for the letter kills, but the Spirit gives life.
Mediator of a Better Covenant
1Now the main point in what we are saying is this: we have such a high priest, one who is seated at the right hand of the throne o ... View more