Children in the Hebrew Bible by Julie Faith Parker

Many people think that the Bible is largely devoid of children—not so! Children are crucial to the world of the Hebrew Bible. While it is hard to know exactly, scholars think that most people in ancient Israel only lived to be about 40 years old, if they were not killed first by war, childbirth, famine, or disease. In cultures whose members have short life expectancies, children and youth are about a third of the population. Although the Bible’s writers do not have a specific interest in children per se, young people were integral to society, and their stories are accordingly woven into the Hebrew Bible.

The distinction between children, youth, and young adults is not neatly delineated. As in modern, Western culture, biblical Israel does not have a set time or ritual that clearly designates a person as an adult. However, the age of marriage would mark a significant transition in a person's life and can serve as a marker of adulthood. A girl would be eligible for marriage about the time she began menstruating, likely in her early teenage years (clearly youth by our standards). Many of the younger female characters in the Bible, such as Rebekah in Gen 24, are of increasing interest to the text when they reach marriageable age. A young man would likely be about 10 years older than his prospective wife, an age at which he would have some resources to support a family. For example, Isaac marries Rebekah, who is a generation younger than he is (Isaac is the son of Abraham; Rebekah is the granddaughter of Nahor, Abraham's brother; see Gen 11:29, Gen 24:24).

Some children and youth in the Bible are relatively famous. Young Isaac (called a na’ar, see below) questions his father Abraham, who is about to sacrifice him (Gen 22:1-19); 17-year-old Joseph shares dreams with his brothers, who sell him into slavery (Gen 37); baby Moses floats down the Nile in a basket (Exod 2:1-10); the boy Samuel hears God's call in the temple (1Sam 3:1-18); and youthful David slays the giant Goliath (1Sam 17). Girls also have significant roles: adolescent Rebekah eagerly offers hospitality and receives the blessing of brave descendants (Gen 24:15-60); Dinah goes out to visit other girls and is raped (Gen 34); young Miriam negotiates with Pharaoh's daughter to ensure her brother Moses's safety (Exod 2:1-10); the princess Tamar speaks eloquently and unsuccessfully resists sexual assault (2Sam 13:1-20); and nubile Abishag reveals old King David's ineptitudes (1Kgs 1:1-4).

Boys and young men receive more attention from the Bible's writers than do girls. Sons were desired because ancient Israelite society was patrilocal, with the daughter moving to the house of her husband upon marriage. Although girls and women were valuable contributors to the labor of the household, a family without sons would be bereft of children to care for the parents in their old age.

In addition to children and youth who are individually named, many more anonymous children and youth pepper the Bible’s pages. Specific terms signal the presence of young characters and further show that the writers recognized children as different from adults. Relational words that can indicate a young person include ben (son), bat (daughter), ach (brother), achot (sister), bekhor (firstborn son), bekhirah (firstborn daughter), qaton (little one), tsa’ir (young/er one), and yatom (orphan).

Other words for children and youths show awareness of a young person's growth and development, such as bachur (young man), betulah (young woman), na‘ar (boy, youth, or servant), na‘arah (girl, youth, or servant), ‘elem (older boy/teenager), ‘almah (older girl/teenager), yeled (child or boy), and yaldah (girl).

Words suggesting infancy include taf (dependents, little ones), gamul ([weaned, safe] small child), awil (small child), yoneq ([nursing] baby or small child), and ‘olel (baby or small child [in danger]). These terms for children and youth reveal attention to kinship, birth order, gender, development, and also safety.

Scholars today explore how the writers of the Bible thought about children and then reread the text with an eye to evaluate their role and influence. Childist biblical interpretation calls attention to famous young characters and to those who are often overlooked, like the boys raised from the dead by Elijah (1Kgs 17:17-24) and Elisha (2Kgs 4:8-37) or the 42 children ripped apart by bears (2Kgs 2:23-25). Like children themselves, the burgeoning study of children in the Bible is full of promise.

Julie Faith Parker, "Children in the Hebrew Bible ", n.p. [cited 27 Mar 2017]. Online: http://bibleodyssey.org/en/passages/related-articles/children-in-the-hebrew-bible

Contributors

Julie Faith Parker

Julie Faith Parker
Assistant Professor, Trinity Lutheran Seminary

Julie Faith Parker is an assistant professor of Old Testament at Trinity Lutheran Seminary in Columbus, Ohio. Her most recent book, Valuable and Vulnerable (Brown University, 2013) is about children in the Hebrew Bible.

A West Semitic language, in which most of the Hebrew Bible is written except for parts of Daniel and Ezra. Hebrew is regarded as the spoken language of ancient Israel but is largely replaced by Aramaic in the Persian period.

That which calls attention to children.

Childist biblical interpretation examines the construction of child and youth characters in the text, then reads the Bible to reassess their importance; analogous to feminist interpretation.

The set of Biblical books shared by Jews and Christians. A more neutral alternative to "Old Testament."

Relating to or associated with people living in the territory of the northern kingdom of Israel during the divided monarchy, or more broadly describing the biblical descendants of Jacob.

Collective ceremonies having a common focus on a god or gods.

Gen 11:29

29Abram and Nahor took wives; the name of Abram's wife was Sarai, and the name of Nahor's wife was Milcah. She was the daughter of Haran the father of Milcah an ... View more

Gen 24:24

24She said to him, “I am the daughter of Bethuel son of Milcah, whom she bore to Nahor.”

Gen 22:1-19

The Command to Sacrifice Isaac
1After these things God tested Abraham. He said to him, “Abraham!” And he said, “Here I am.”2He said, “Take your son, your only s ... View more

Gen 37

Joseph Dreams of Greatness
1Jacob settled in the land where his father had lived as an alien, the land of Canaan.2This is the story of the family of Jacob.
Jose ... View more

Exod 2:1-10

Birth and Youth of Moses
1Now a man from the house of Levi went and married a Levite woman.2The woman conceived and bore a son; and when she saw that he was a f ... View more

1Sam 3:1-18

Samuel's Calling and Prophetic Activity
1Now the boy Samuel was ministering to the Lord under Eli. The word of the Lord was rare in those days; visions were not ... View more

1Sam 17

David and Goliath
1Now the Philistines gathered their armies for battle; they were gathered at Socoh, which belongs to Judah, and encamped between Socoh and Aze ... View more

Gen 24:15-60

15Before he had finished speaking, there was Rebekah, who was born to Bethuel son of Milcah, the wife of Nahor, Abraham's brother, coming out with her water jar ... View more

Exod 2:1-10

Birth and Youth of Moses
1Now a man from the house of Levi went and married a Levite woman.2The woman conceived and bore a son; and when she saw that he was a f ... View more

2Sam 13:1-20

Amnon and Tamar
1Some time passed. David's son Absalom had a beautiful sister whose name was Tamar; and David's son Amnon fell in love with her.2Amnon was so to ... View more

1Kgs 1:1-4

The Struggle for the Succession
1King David was old and advanced in years; and although they covered him with clothes, he could not get warm.2So his servants sa ... View more

1Kgs 17:17-24

Elijah Revives the Widow's Son
17After this the son of the woman, the mistress of the house, became ill; his illness was so severe that there was no breath left ... View more

2Kgs 4:8-37

Elisha Raises the Shunammite's Son
8One day Elisha was passing through Shunem, where a wealthy woman lived, who urged him to have a meal. So whenever he passed ... View more

2Kgs 2:23-25

23He went up from there to Bethel; and while he was going up on the way, some small boys came out of the city and jeered at him, saying, “Go away, baldhead! Go ... View more

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