stone

stone

Any of a large variety of hardened natural inorganic, often mineral, substances. Biblical references provide examples of the wide spectrum of uses to which stone was put. It could serve as a memorial, shrine, and pledge (Gen 28:18-22). It could cover wells (Gen 29:2-10) and doorways to tombs (Mark 15:46; Matt 27:60; Luke 11:39). It could be worked into bowls, mortars, pestles, sockets for doors, and other implements (Exod 7:19). It served as a weapon, whether thrown by hand (Exod 8:26), sling (1Sam 17:49), or catapult. It symbolized immediate destruction by its action of sinking rapidly in water (Exod 15:5), and its immobility could symbolize death (Exod 15:16). It could give the weary rest (Exod 17:12), serve as construction material for altars (Exod 20:25), or be a public record of binding law (Exod 24:12), the accomplishments of persons (Exod 28:10), or noteworthy events, as with royal stelae. It could serve as a device of public execution (Lev 24:14) or private anger (Exod 21:18). It could be used as an object of worship (Lev 26:1) or idolatry (Ezek 20:32; Deut 28:36; Deut 28:64; Deut 29:17). It could serve as a memorial of significant events (Josh 4:1-10) or covenant renewal (Josh 24:26-27) or as a named boundary point (Josh 15:6; Josh 18:17). It served as a platform for executions (Judg 9:5; Judg 9:18), and as a weapon it could be honed to fine accuracy (Judg 20:16). It stood as the measure of hardness (Job 38:30; for ice). It could cause accidental stumbling (Ps 91:12) or serve as a device of magic (Prov 17:8). Stone of special quality served as cornerstones for walls or buildings (Isa 28:16), but it could symbolize ultimate ruin (Hos 12:11). It symbolized the opposite of nourishing bread (Matt 7:9), but could in properly fashioned form hold water or wine (John 2:6-11).

Gen 28:18-22

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Gen 29:2-10

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Mark 15:46

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Matt 27:60

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Luke 11:39

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Exod 7:19

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Exod 8:26

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1Sam 17:49

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Exod 15:5

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Exod 15:16

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Exod 17:12

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Exod 20:25

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Exod 24:12

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Exod 28:10

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Lev 24:14

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Exod 21:18

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Lev 26:1

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Ezek 20:32

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Deut 28:36

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Deut 28:64

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Deut 29:17

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Josh 4:1-10

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Josh 24:26-27

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Josh 15:6

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Josh 18:17

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Judg 9:5

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Judg 9:18

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Judg 20:16

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Job 38:30

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Ps 91:12

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Prov 17:8

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Isa 28:16

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Hos 12:11

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Matt 7:9

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John 2:6-11

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