Sabbath

Sabbath (Sab´uhth; Heb. shabbat, “to cease, desist”)

The weekly day of rest and abstention from work enjoined upon the Israelites. It served as a memorial of God’s resting from the work of creation (Gen 2:1-3; Exod 20:11; Exod 31:17) and was supported by the humanitarian concern to give servants, strangers, and work animals an opportunity to rest (Exod 23:12; Deut 5:14-15). In the Pentateuch, Sabbath observance is legislated in general terms (Exod 20:8-11; Exod 23:12; Exod 31:12-17; Lev 23:3; Deut 5:12-15); types of work prohibited include gathering food, plowing and reaping, kindling a fire, and chopping wood (Exod 16:29-30; Exod 34:21; Exod 35:3; Num 15:32-36). During the monarchical period (ca. 1050–586 BCE), the Sabbath was marked by visits to prophet and Temple (2Kgs 4:23; Isa 1:13). Business activity came to a halt (Amos 8:5). The Sabbath was a joyous day (Hos 2:13; Lam 2:6), and its desecration was severely attacked (Jer 17:19-27). Prophecies in (Isa 56:2-7 and Isa 58:13-14) single out the Sabbath as the primary commandment, observance of which will bring personal as well as national salvation. See also (Jer 17:19-27; Ezek 20:11-24; cf. Neh 13:17-18). During the period of the restoration, Nehemiah enforced observance of the Sabbath by locking the city gates of Jerusalem in order to prevent traders from selling their wares (Neh 13:15-22). In the earliest Christian community, observance of Sabbath regulations fell into disuse, mainly because Jesus himself had been lax in his obedience to them (Matt 12:1-8; Mark 3:1-5; Luke 13:10-17; John 5:1-10). Jesus’s claim to lordship over the Sabbath (Mark 2:28) was one element that aroused hostility against him (Mark 3:6; John 5:18). In time, the chief liturgical day for Christians shifted to Sunday as a celebration of Jesus’s resurrection on the first day of the week (Matt 28:1).

Gen 2:1-3

1Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all their multitude.2And on the seventh day God finished the work that he had done, and he rested on the seve ... View more

Exod 20:11

11For in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that is in them, but rested the seventh day; therefore the Lord blessed the sabbath day and c ... View more

Exod 31:17

17It is a sign forever between me and the people of Israel that in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, and on the seventh day he rested, and was refreshed. ... View more

Exod 23:12

12Six days you shall do your work, but on the seventh day you shall rest, so that your ox and your donkey may have relief, and your homeborn slave and the resid ... View more

Deut 5:14-15

14But the seventh day is a sabbath to the Lord your God; you shall not do any work—you, or your son or your daughter, or your male or female slave, or your ox o ... View more

Exod 20:8-11

8Remember the sabbath day, and keep it holy.9Six days you shall labor and do all your work.10But the seventh day is a sabbath to the Lord your God; you shall no ... View more

Exod 23:12

12Six days you shall do your work, but on the seventh day you shall rest, so that your ox and your donkey may have relief, and your homeborn slave and the resid ... View more

Exod 31:12-17

The Sabbath Law
12The Lord said to Moses:13You yourself are to speak to the Israelites: “You shall keep my sabbaths, for this is a sign between me and you throu ... View more

Lev 23:3

The Sabbath, Passover, and Unleavened Bread
3Six days shall work be done; but the seventh day is a sabbath of complete rest, a holy convocation; you shall do no ... View more

Deut 5:12-15

12Observe the sabbath day and keep it holy, as the Lord your God commanded you.13Six days you shall labor and do all your work.14But the seventh day is a sabbat ... View more

Exod 16:29-30

29See! The Lord has given you the sabbath, therefore on the sixth day he gives you food for two days; each of you stay where you are; do not leave your place on ... View more

Exod 34:21

21Six days you shall work, but on the seventh day you shall rest; even in plowing time and in harvest time you shall rest.

Exod 35:3

3You shall kindle no fire in all your dwellings on the sabbath day.

Num 15:32-36

Penalty for Violating the Sabbath
32When the Israelites were in the wilderness, they found a man gathering sticks on the sabbath day.33Those who found him gathe ... View more

2Kgs 4:23

23He said, “Why go to him today? It is neither new moon nor sabbath.” She said, “It will be all right.”

Isa 1:13

13bringing offerings is futile;
incense is an abomination to me.
New moon and sabbath and calling of convocation—
I cannot endure solemn assemblies with iniquit ... View more

Amos 8:5

5saying, “When will the new moon be over
so that we may sell grain;
and the sabbath,
so that we may offer wheat for sale?
We will make the ephah small and the s ... View more

Hos 2:13

13I will punish her for the festival days of the Baals,
when she offered incense to them
and decked herself with her ring and jewelry,
and went after her lovers ... View more

Lam 2:6

6He has broken down his booth like a garden,
he has destroyed his tabernacle;
the Lord has abolished in Zion
festival and sabbath,
and in his fierce indignation ... View more

Jer 17:19-27

Hallow the Sabbath Day
19Thus said the Lord to me: Go and stand in the People's Gate, by which the kings of Judah enter and by which they go out, and in all the ... View more

Isa 56:2-7

2Happy is the mortal who does this,
the one who holds it fast,
who keeps the sabbath, not profaning it,
and refrains from doing any evil.
3Do not let the foreig ... View more

Isa 58:13-14

13If you refrain from trampling the sabbath,
from pursuing your own interests on my holy day;
if you call the sabbath a delight
and the holy day of the Lord hon ... View more

Jer 17:19-27

Hallow the Sabbath Day
19Thus said the Lord to me: Go and stand in the People's Gate, by which the kings of Judah enter and by which they go out, and in all the ... View more

Ezek 20:11-24

11I gave them my statutes and showed them my ordinances, by whose observance everyone shall live.12Moreover I gave them my sabbaths, as a sign between me and th ... View more

Neh 13:17-18

17Then I remonstrated with the nobles of Judah and said to them, “What is this evil thing that you are doing, profaning the sabbath day?18Did not your ancestors ... View more

Neh 13:15-22

Sabbath Reforms Begun
15In those days I saw in Judah people treading wine presses on the sabbath, and bringing in heaps of grain and loading them on donkeys; an ... View more

Matt 12:1-8

Plucking Grain on the Sabbath
1At that time Jesus went through the grainfields on the sabbath; his disciples were hungry, and they began to pluck heads of grain ... View more

Mark 3:1-5

The Man with a Withered Hand
1Again he entered the synagogue, and a man was there who had a withered hand.2They watched him to see whether he would cure him on ... View more

Luke 13:10-17

Jesus Heals a Crippled Woman
10Now he was teaching in one of the synagogues on the sabbath.11And just then there appeared a woman with a spirit that had cripple ... View more

John 5:1-10

Jesus Heals on the Sabbath
1After this there was a festival of the Jews, and Jesus went up to Jerusalem.2Now in Jerusalem by the Sheep Gate there is a pool, cal ... View more

Mark 2:28

28so the Son of Man is lord even of the sabbath.”

Mark 3:6

6The Pharisees went out and immediately conspired with the Herodians against him, how to destroy him.

John 5:18

18For this reason the Jews were seeking all the more to kill him, because he was not only breaking the sabbath, but was also calling God his own Father, thereby ... View more

Matt 28:1

The Resurrection of Jesus
1After the sabbath, as the first day of the week was dawning, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary went to see the tomb.

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