pharaoh

pharaoh (Fair´oh)

The Hebrew word for the title held by the king of Egypt. This word was used in the Bible either by itself or attached to the king’s name (e.g., “Pharaoh Hophra,” Jer 44:30). The pharaohs mentioned by name in the Bible are 1 Shishak (945–924 BCE), who gave asylum to Jeroboam (1Kgs 11:40) and later invaded Palestine (1Kgs 14:25-26; 2Chr 12:1-9). 2 Tirhakah (690–664 BCE), mentioned in (2Kgs 19:9 and Isa 37:9) as the “king of Ethiopia.” 3 Neco (610–595 BCE), who defeated and killed Josiah at Megiddo in 609 BCE (2Kgs 23:29; 2Chr 35:20-24), removed Josiah’s son and successor, Jehoahaz, from the throne, and put Jehoiakim in his place (2Kgs 23:30-35; 2Chr 36:1-4). Neco ultimately lost all of Egypt’s west Asiatic possessions to the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar (2Kgs 24:7). 4 Hophra (589–570 BCE), whom Jeremiah said would be delivered into the hands of his enemies, just as Zedekiah, king of Judah, had been to the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar (Jer 44:30). 5 So, the “king of Egypt” (2Kgs 17:4) to whom King Hoshea sent messengers just before he revolted against the Assyrians. The name is unknown from Egyptian records. It might refer to Osorkon IV (ca. 727–720 BCE), or it might be derived from an Egyptian epithet referring to kings of the Saite dynasty (664–525 BCE).

Jer 44:30

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1Kgs 11:40

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1Kgs 14:25-26

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2Chr 12:1-9

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2Kgs 19:9

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Isa 37:9

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2Kgs 23:29

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2Chr 35:20-24

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2Kgs 23:30-35

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2Chr 36:1-4

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2Kgs 24:7

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Jer 44:30

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2Kgs 17:4

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