oil

oil

In the Bible, olive oil. Oil of varying qualities was produced by different stages of production. The best oil—beaten oil (1Kgs 4:11)—was produced by placing olives that had been crushed (e.g., by treading on them, Mic 6:1) in baskets and letting the oil drip through. As a component in bread making, oil was a basic part of the diet (1Kgs 17:12-16). It was also a basic component in cereal offerings (Lev 2; Exod 29:40; Num 28:5; Lev 5:11; Num 5:15) and used for cosmetic purposes (Esth 2:12; Song 1:3, Song 4:10). Mourners did not use oil on their bodies during their period of sadness (2Sam 14:2; Isa 61:3; Dan 10:2-3), because it was an expression of gladness, refreshment, and pleasure (Ps 23:5; Ps 104:15). It could be used as an emollient to soften skin of wounds (Isa 1:6) or to treat leather shields (Isa 21:5). Oil was used in the religious anointing of objects and persons (Gen 28:18; Gen 31:13; Gen 35:14; Exod 29; Exod 30:22-33; Lev 14:10; Lev 14:12; Lev 15-18:12; 1Sam 10:1; 1Sam 16:13; 1Kgs 1:39; 1Kgs 19:16). A recipe for the composition of the priestly anointing oil is given in (Exod 30:22-25). In the NT oil is used for anointing in conjunction with healing rites (Mark 6:13; Jas 5:14). Finally, oil was employed as fuel for lamps (Exod 27:20; Lev 24:2). As a symbol, oil may indicate fertility of land (Deut 33:24; Job 29:6) and agricultural abundance (Deut 7:13; Deut 11:14).

1Kgs 4:11

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Mic 6:1

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1Kgs 17:12-16

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Lev 2

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Exod 29:40

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Num 28:5

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Lev 5:11

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Num 5:15

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Esth 2:12

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Song 1:3

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Song 4:10

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2Sam 14:2

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Isa 61:3

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Dan 10:2-3

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Ps 23:5

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Ps 104:15

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Isa 1:6

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Isa 21:5

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Gen 28:18

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Gen 31:13

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Gen 35:14

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Exod 29

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Exod 30:22-33

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Lev 14:10

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Lev 14:12

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Lev 15-18:12

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1Sam 10:1

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1Sam 16:13

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1Kgs 1:39

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1Kgs 19:16

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Exod 30:22-25

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Mark 6:13

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Jas 5:14

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Exod 27:20

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Lev 24:2

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Deut 33:24

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Job 29:6

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Deut 7:13

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Deut 11:14

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