1 A grinding vessel in which a pestle is the crushing instrument (Prov 27:22; Num 11:8). 2 The sealer between courses of stone or brick, whether a natural material like bitumen (Gen 11:3) or a prepared compound (Exod 1:14). A hint of the preparatory process as trampling is reflected in Isaiah’s metaphoric reference (Isa 41:25), and Jeremiah’s oracle against Egypt used stones buried under mortar as a figure for the successful Babylonian conquest of the land (Jer 43:9). (Nah 3:14) sees treading mortar as a preparation for defense, and Zephaniah uses it as a proper noun for a location in Jerusalem where silver traders functioned (Zeph 1:11).

Prov 27:22

22Crush a fool in a mortar with a pestle
along with crushed grain,
but the folly will not be driven out.

Num 11:8

8The people went around and gathered it, ground it in mills or beat it in mortars, then boiled it in pots and made cakes of it; and the taste of it was like the ... View more

Gen 11:3

3And they said to one another, “Come, let us make bricks, and burn them thoroughly.” And they had brick for stone, and bitumen for mortar.

Exod 1:14

14and made their lives bitter with hard service in mortar and brick and in every kind of field labor. They were ruthless in all the tasks that they imposed on t ... View more

Isa 41:25

25I stirred up one from the north, and he has come,
from the rising of the sun he was summoned by name.
He shall trample on rulers as on mortar,
as the potter t ... View more

Jer 43:9

9Take some large stones in your hands, and bury them in the clay pavement that is at the entrance to Pharaoh's palace in Tahpanhes. Let the Judeans see you do i ... View more

Nah 3:14

14Draw water for the siege,
strengthen your forts;
trample the clay,
tread the mortar,
take hold of the brick mold!

Zeph 1:11

11The inhabitants of the Mortar wail,
for all the traders have perished;
all who weigh out silver are cut off.

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