Malleable materials of varying degrees of strength, hardness, and value. Biblical references to metals are frequent, but allusive. Tubal-cain (Gen 4:22) is known as a metalsmith. Palestine is described as “a land whose stones are iron and from whose hills you may mine copper” (Deut 8:9; Ezra 1:9-11). (Judg 17:3-4); Judg 18:14-18) use the expression “cast metal” in reference to an idol, and (Hab 2:18) contains a similar reference to “cast” (NRSV; cf. RSV “metal”), also describing an idol made with human hands.

Gen 4:22

22Zillah bore Tubal-cain, who made all kinds of bronze and iron tools. The sister of Tubal-cain was Naamah.

Deut 8:9

9a land where you may eat bread without scarcity, where you will lack nothing, a land whose stones are iron and from whose hills you may mine copper.

Ezra 1:9-11

9And this was the inventory: gold basins, thirty; silver basins, one thousand; knives, twenty-nine;10gold bowls, thirty; other silver bowls, four hundred ten; o ... View more

Judg 17:3-4

3Then he returned the eleven hundred pieces of silver to his mother; and his mother said, “I consecrate the silver to the Lord from my hand for my son, to make ... View more

Judg 18:14-18

14Then the five men who had gone to spy out the land (that is, Laish) said to their comrades, “Do you know that in these buildings there are an ephod, teraphim, ... View more

Hab 2:18

18What use is an idol
once its maker has shaped it—
a cast image, a teacher of lies?
For its maker trusts in what has been made,
though the product is only an i ... View more

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