bread

bread

The staff of life (Lev 26:26; Ezek 5:16; Ezek 14:13); bread and water make up life’s two basic staples (Num 21:5; Isa 3:1). It is frequently used as a metaphor for food in general (Judg 13:16; Luke 15:17). Bread was made mainly from wheat or barley (2Kgs 4:42; John 6:9; John 6:13), the latter being eaten primarily by the poor. At times any mixture of grains, such as beans, lentils, millet, and so on, might be ground up and made into bread (Ezek 4:9). Grain was usually ground and used in coarse form (Lev 2:14; Lev 2:16), but at times it was ground more finely (Gen 18:6; Lev 2:2; Lev 6:15). The best bread was made from wheat in which only the grain, not the bran, was ground (Deut 32:14; 2Kgs 7:1). Upon being ground, grain was mixed with water, salt, and old dough. The mixture was then kneaded in a bowl (Exod 8:3; Exod 12:34), allowed to rise, and baked. Bread was baked either by setting it on hot stones and covering with hot ashes (1Kgs 19:6; Isa 44:19), by cooking on an iron griddle (Lev 2:5; Lev 6:21; Lev 7:9), or by baking in an oven (Lev 2:4; Lev 7:9; Lev 26:26) that was heated by stubble (Mal 4:1), grass (Matt 6:30), or twigs (1Kgs 17:12). The term “bread” is used metaphorically in various ways to refer to earning a living (2Thess 3:12); sharing in the future kingdom (Luke 14:15); the word of God (Isa 55:2); an enemy about to be consumed (Num 14:9); and Christ as the true food from heaven (John 6:31-51). Bread is also associated with various religious rites: the Passover and Festival of Unleavened Bread (Exod 12:8; Exod 14-20:8; Exod 13:3-10); the bread of the Presence (Exod 25:23-30; Exod 40:22-23; Lev 24:5-9; Heb 9:2); various cereal offerings (Exod 29:2; Exod 23-25:2; Lev 2:4-16; Lev 7:9; 1Sam 10:3-8); the manna in the wilderness (Exod 16:14-30); and the Lord’s Supper (Matt 26:26-29; Mark 14:22-25; Luke 22:14-23; 1Cor 11:23-26). The last was also called the “breaking of bread” (Acts 2:42; Acts 2:46; Acts 20:7; Acts 20:11).

Lev 26:26

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Ezek 5:16

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Ezek 14:13

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Num 21:5

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Isa 3:1

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Judg 13:16

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Luke 15:17

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2Kgs 4:42

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John 6:9

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John 6:13

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Ezek 4:9

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Lev 2:14

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Lev 2:16

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Gen 18:6

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Lev 2:2

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Lev 6:15

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Deut 32:14

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2Kgs 7:1

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Exod 8:3

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Exod 12:34

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1Kgs 19:6

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Isa 44:19

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Lev 2:5

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Lev 6:21

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Lev 7:9

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Lev 2:4

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Lev 7:9

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Lev 26:26

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Mal 4:1

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Matt 6:30

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1Kgs 17:12

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2Thess 3:12

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Luke 14:15

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Isa 55:2

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Num 14:9

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John 6:31-51

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Exod 12:8

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Exod 14-20:8

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Exod 13:3-10

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Exod 25:23-30

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Exod 40:22-23

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Lev 24:5-9

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Heb 9:2

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Exod 29:2

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Exod 23-25:2

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Lev 2:4-16

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Lev 7:9

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1Sam 10:3-8

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Exod 16:14-30

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Matt 26:26-29

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Mark 14:22-25

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Luke 22:14-23

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1Cor 11:23-26

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Acts 2:42

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Acts 2:46

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Acts 20:7

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Acts 20:11

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