In the OT, anyone (or anything) standing in the way of the completion of God’s will or opposing God’s people, either collectively or individually (2Sam 19:22; 1Kgs 5:4; 1Kgs 11:25; Ezra 4:1). “Adversary” is the literal meaning of the Hebrew word satan, and the idea eventually developed that Satan was the adversary (Job 1:6-2:7). In certain NT passages, the term is also used with this connotation (1Pet 5:8; 1Tim 5:14-15).

2Sam 19:22

22But David said, “What have I to do with you, you sons of Zeruiah, that you should today become an adversary to me? Shall anyone be put to death in Israel this ... View more

1Kgs 5:4

4But now the Lord my God has given me rest on every side; there is neither adversary nor misfortune.

1Kgs 11:25

25He was an adversary of Israel all the days of Solomon, making trouble as Hadad did; he despised Israel and reigned over Aram.

Ezra 4:1

Resistance to Rebuilding the Temple
1When the adversaries of Judah and Benjamin heard that the returned exiles were building a temple to the Lord, the God of Is ... View more

Job 1:6-2:7

Attack on Job's Character
6One day the heavenly beings came to present themselves before the Lord, and Satan also came among them.7The Lord said to Satan, “Wher ... View more

1Pet 5:8

8Discipline yourselves, keep alert. Like a roaring lion your adversary the devil prowls around, looking for someone to devour.

1Tim 5:14-15

14So I would have younger widows marry, bear children, and manage their households, so as to give the adversary no occasion to revile us.15For some have already ... View more

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